Saturday, December 29, 2018

How do Drugs or medicines work within the body?

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How do Drugs or medicines work within the body?


How do medicines work in the body?

What happens to medicines after being in our body? Where is he going? How do they reach there? What do they do?

How do medicines work in the body?

Millions of tablets, syrups and medicines are obtained by humans in some form or daily on a daily basis. It can be beneficial for all of us what really happens inside our body when we take it as a medicine.





What Drugs or medicines do for us?



Medicines depend on the form and manner in which they are taken.

Here are some examples of why we take medication:


  • Pain relief
  • To fight infection
  • To combat illness
  • To complete a reduction
  • Helping a body mechanism to correct itself
  • To reduce the excess of body fat
  • To balance systems and organs in the body

But further to what we take, there's also the route and shape by which a medicinal drug is taken:


  • Oral - tablet, capsules, syrups, drips etc.
  • Sub-lingual, (under the tongue) - bullet, drops.
  • Skin Preparation - Cream, ointment, gel, patch and so on.
  • Injection - by hypodermic needle
  • IV - Intravenous - Needle in a vein.
  • In the bowel - suppository / enema
  • Inhalation - steam breathing, crystals, and inhalation.
  • Drops - ears / eyes / nose

How drugs are processed by the body is a complex process, but we can simplify it by breaking the steps in four main areas:


  • Administration - We take medicines by the form and route mentioned earlier.
  • Childbirth - Once the medicines are inside our body then they go into the blood stream and then into the limbs and tissues.
  • Exhibit - Drugs will create or cause effects.
  • Elimination - The body will wash the drugs and waste products associated with them.

Therefore the type and route impact will be where the drug will enter the body and what areas the drug can target. For example, breathing is mainly for help in breathing.

There is also an impact on the path and type of medication that how medicines will work. Intravenous (IV) drug administration is a quick way, because chemicals enter the blood stream directly.

Muscle injection - which is filled with blood vessels - is also a very fast way of medicines.

Spontaneous and enema can be inserted into the bowel through the opening of the anus. This is due to the surface area of ​​the bowel which is packed with blood vessels, so the drugs are absorbed very quickly.

These last 3 passages also bypass the stomach where some or all of the drug can destroy or dilute hydrochloric acid.

The most common way for medicines:

The most common way to take medication is through mouth - it is also known as the 'oral' route. Here is a journey to make the medicine that starts from our mouth and goes to the target area inside the body.

Medicines in the digestive system

When the medicines arrive in the stomach, some will begin to dissolve. Some medicines will be absorbed in the stomach layer, while others will go into the small intestine. It depends on the type of coating that dissolves in a tablet, in the stomach or elsewhere.

There are special coats in many medicines that protect the drug from being destroyed by stomach acids. Tablets such as capsules are often such protection. This is why it is important to not open capsules or coated tablets and swallow the drug in.

In addition, some medicines inside coated people can be harmful to the stomach layer. This happens because some drugs inspire the stomach to produce high levels of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which can be harmful.

Drugs that are not fully processed in the stomach, they go into the small intestine.

Medicines are absorbed in the lining of the small intestine, which is made up of three parts:


  • Duodenum
  • Jejunum
  • Ileum

Drugs from the small intestine will be transferred to the blood stream.

Medicines in the circulatory system

No matter what form of medicine it takes, and they dissolve and enter the blood stream at some point.

Medicines are transmitted around the body and transported to organs and tissues. This process is very fast. The heart can pump a full cycle of blood in approximately one minute. During this process, the drug molecules are transported throughout the body. The brain will receive the largest chunk: approximately 16%.

The effect of the drug will remain active until the metabolism starts. (There is a biochemical activity of a substance within the organism of the metabolic organism.)

Metabolism is different for each drug. In other words, some are broken and are prepared to eliminate them faster than others.

This is the reason that some medicines will be given often, for example, 2-4 hours, others less. In fact, some medicines may already be broken when they first pass through the liver; This is called "first-pass effect".

Some categories of tablets and capsules may have to go through the liver several times before the end of the body.

Medicines within body tissues and cells

Within body tissues, we eventually reach the cellular level.

Body cells can absorb fluid and therefore they will soak blood molecules with blood that surround them.

Not all medicines will start working at the same time. This is because everyone has their own specialized molecules in different medicines that will dissolve very quickly or more slowly than others.

Apart from this, it seems easy to mix some medicines in human tissue compared to others.

Human cell membrane has a high content of fat. Therefore, if you have a drug that can dissolve in fat then they will start working faster than those people.

This ability to dissolve in fat is a very important point when thinking about how fast the drug will start functioning.

Once the decomposed medicines are within the cell, most of them do their work through biochemical reactions. They then again enter the bloodstream where they will once again enter the liver. Here they will be broken and ready to be finished by the body.

Eliminate drugs from the body

The main limbs associated with the elimination of drugs are liver and kidneys.

Originally these organes carry out toxic substances. The liver breaks them through a series of complex metabolic reactions. These toxic substances / waste products are then stored by the liver until it is ready to send them to the kidney.

Substances prepared in the kidney are processed further and then removed from the body through the urine.

 How do Medicines and Brains Interact and work with each other :



As mentioned earlier, medicines once entered the bloodstream when they are dissolved and travel in various organs including the brain.

Once a few drugs in the brain can affect the chemicals called neurotransmitters.

Neurotransmitters are special elements to control signals sent between brain cells. These brain cells are called neurons.

Specific neurotransmitters are also responsible for affecting people's emotions and mood.

However, it is not always possible for medicines to gain access to the brain. This is because the brain has a protective device called BBB for blood-brain obstruction or short.

This effect helps prevent things like bacteria, toxins and unwanted molecules from entering the fluid, which directly encircles the brain.

However, what does it mean, if the infection infiltrates in the rescue then anti-biotics, whose molecules are large, medicines can not cross the BBB to fight bacteria.

After saying this, with swelling, swelling develops and this is a symptom that will weaken the obstruction and allow anti-biotics to be filtered.

To get through the rescue of BBB, other drugs require direct access to the brain, which contain fat-soluble properties.

BBB is deliberately weak in some areas of the brain. It allows the brain to monitor the structure of the blood and take action if adjustment is required.

There are conditions and diseases that can weaken BBB to a dangerous level, which can lead to other harmful substances. Some of these conditions are:

  • high blood pressure
  • Much exposure to microwaves and radiation
  • Infection
  • head trauma
  • ischaemia
  • swelling
  • Abnormal pressure around the brain
  • Meningitis
  • Epilepsy
  • multiple sclerosis
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • HIV encephalitis
  • Virus

Factors That Affect Your Medications:

There are several factors that will affect both the absorption rate and the metabolism of medicines:


  • Physical
  • food
  • Other drugs / chemicals

These factors will decide how effective the drug is in return.

Physical factors

Contains:


  • your weight
  • The age
  • fat mass
  • muscle mass

All these aspects either trigger the absorption of medication or slow it down.

If you have a good amount of fat mass for example, then it will have an effect that how long it takes to target a specific region and how effective the medication will be there.

Regarding age - young people are able to metabolize and eliminate drugs and do better than older people. That's why doctors will often moderate the tablets' dose for an elderly person.

Babies and young children are still matured with a slight dose as well as their bodies. This means that the toxic effects of drugs can damage their limbs more easily.

Apart from this, we are all genetically and chemically different. Some of us can bear a special medication compared to others. This is the reason why some people may be suffering from the side effects of a drug * or adverse reaction.


  •  Side effects of a Drug: Unusual secondary effects of a drug. - Encarta dictionary
  •  Adverse reactions: "... undesirable or harmful consequences from a drug ..." - Encarta Dictionary

If you experience any troubles with drug treatments, you should consult your doctor or pharmacist immediately.

Food:

Food will slow down the drug's absorption rate. This can either be beneficial or harmful for the drug's success rate.

That is why it is important to always follow the instructions given by the doctor, pharmacist or on the sheet that comes with medicine.

As an example, instructions may include:


  • To be taken before meals
  • To be taken with food or afterwards
  • To be taken after meals
  • Water is to be taken with a full glass

These instructions have been given so that the drugs work in their most effective way. Apart from this, these instructions may also be used to reduce the harmful effects that some tablets may have on the body.

Other Medicines:

They can also put many effects on medicines. For example, if some medicines are taken at the same time, then they can cancel each other's benefits.

Some medicines will increase or decrease the absorption and metabolic rate in the body. Then, this is the reason that it is important to follow the instructions given to you or it has been said on the instructions sheet.

For example, you can see an instruction like:


  • Should not be taken with alcohol
  • Do not machinery, or drive while taking this medicine

I hope this article has been helpful in explaining how medicines work in the body and the factors that affect how they work.

If you are ever unsure about any medicines you have - whether it is fixed or bought - then talk to a doctor or pharmacist as soon as possible.
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